Wood packaging products are widely used in international trade. Because using wood-based materials, wood packaging products have the potential to carry various kinds of pests and plant diseases. To anticipate this, since 2004 the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) has established the ISPM Standard # 15 (International Standard Phytosanitary Measure # 15), which is a regulation on international standards for pest use. The methods used are (1) Fumigation (MB), using Methyl Bromide gas; and (2) Heat Treatment (HT) with a minimum wood core temperature of 56 ° C for 30 minutes.
The government has implemented ISPM # 15 through the Minister of Agriculture regulation no. 12 of 2009 concerning Requirements and Procedures for Plant Quarantine Against the Entry of Wood Packaging into the Territory of the Republic of Indonesia. Unfortunately, the application is activated by 100% ISPM # 15 method regardless of facts that are of international standard made according to the conditions of the country which is very different from Indonesia. Countries in Europe with four different seasons only use one type of wood (pine wood) as raw material for wood products, while the temperature and type of wood packaging company that is very different from Indonesia.
Indonesia’s geographical location is between two continents, the largest archipelagic country in the world, there are even have 3 different time zones in one country, biodiversity richness including insects that are harmful / potential as pests, as well as various types of wood used as materials Wood Packaging. In general, conditions in Indonesia are far more extreme compared to Europe. The investment in infrastructure resources is too large to apply the standard treatment of Heat Treatment (HT), especially in areas that use very little Wood Packaging in the Export trade and also regarding the Fumigation of Methyl Bromide (MB) according to ISPM # 15 impacting on the destruction of the Ozone layer . In addition to these problems, the need for Wood Packaging such as Pallet in Trade in Indonesia is currently more than 95% still supplied by Non Manufacture Wood Packaging (NMWP). NMWP is supplied by small and medium enterprises (SMEs) consisting of traditional wood / pallet packaging craftsmen who use fresh cut to be used as a direct wood packaging product, so that the moisture content is very high with average> 80%. In addition, work equipment and human resources are still very limited, making it difficult to implement treatment methods according to ISPM # 15 standards. In fact, the existence of the NMWP existed before 2004, where ISPM # 15 began to be implemented by IPPC in international trade, and also no less importantly the number of comparisons of packaging. The wood produced by NMWP was much greater than the amount produced by the Provider registered by BARANTAN. Based on the current data the number of Providers that have been registered by BARANTAN is around 104, and even then there are those whose licenses have been revoked and there is also a Provider in suspended / frozen condition. Estimates that are still active are not more than 50%, which is around 50.
Wood Packaging Significance Protection of Products and ISPM # 15 Literal Adoption Problems in Indonesia
Looking at the problems and challenges presented above, the responsibility of the Agriculture Quarantine Agency – Badan Karantina Pertanian (BARANTAN) / NPPO is becoming increasingly greater for IPPC, the Environment and the international world, to control and guarantee that every wooden package is free from attacks (reinfestation) of Plant Pest Organisms (OPT).
Until now the application of ISPM # 15 in the field to NMWP and wood packaging encountered many obstacles in the field, so that the problems that arise resulted in a very detrimental impact on all parties. The Competent Authority, in this case BARANTAN / NPPO, will lose the trust of both IPPC and the international community, and ultimately products from Indonesia cannot enter the international market. Of course, this will reduce the volume of exports and the country’s foreign exchange earnings which are not small.
Some of the weaknesses that have occurred so far in Indonesia, and become an obstacle to the application of the ISPM # 15 treatment system to wood packaging products produced by NMWP are as follows:
- There is no guarantee that fumigated wood packaging has a water content of <30%.
- There is no guarantee that the fumigation company that carries out the ISPM # 15 treatment on Wood Packaging is using AFASID Fumigation Company / BARANTAN Standard.
- The time used is not efficient, because it needs 24 hours
- There is no guarantee that the AFASID / BARANTAN Standard Fumigation Company is available in every region of Indonesia. If there is the distance it is still far away, so the implementation can becomes a high cost.
- Many Fumigation processes carried out by Non Standard BARANTAN, due to problems with time and cost pressures by Customers, as well as unfair competition between Fumigation Companies.
- Under the Montreal Protocol, MB ingredients damage ozone and are not environmentally friendly, so they are no longer used in the future.
- The pressure from developed countries is greater for the elimination of the use of MB (Methyl Bromide).
The application of Heat Treatment (HT) also has significant constraints, including:
- Fresh Cut Wood Packaging has a high moisture content (MC), with an average of > 70%, so the HT process cannot be done immediately because the packaging can be damaged, broken, curved, bent, cracked, and wrinkled.
- The time needed is around 4-5 days for the board and 8-10 days for the beam
- For wood packaging providers with small production volumes (NMWP), the treatment of HT systems is very costly because it consumes enormous energy. As a result, besides high investment costs, it is also not environmentally friendly.
- HT facilities or infrastructure resources are not evenly available in all regions of Indonesia. This is due to a lack of guarantee for the availability of Energy / Electricity Resources Supply throughout the Indonesian Region.
- There is no guarantee that HT treatment using Kiln Dry (KD) facilities, has been tested for feasibility by BARANTAN.
- Quality targets achieved for MC ≤20% can only be made on sawn timber, not for wood packaging products.
After the ISPM # 15 system runs for almost 5 years, it’s time to think of a method that really suits the conditions & situation in Indonesia, both climate; humidity; environment, type of raw material and profile of the wood packaging company. So far, wood packaging that will be registered by ISPM # 15 Provider comes from several sources, including:
- Wooden Packaging Company that has / has not been registered by BARANTAN.
- Non Manufacture Wood Packaging (NMWP) / Traditional Craftsmen (UKM).
- ISPM # 15 Provider Customers themselves (Exporters).
In addition, research and development on materials and application methods for environmentally friendly wood packaging products; Materials that require ozone depleting substances (DPO) in the atmosphere must be carried out immediately.
Standard treatment / evaluation must be carried out because 100% ISPM # 15 in Indonesia has proven to be very large, especially for wood packaging originating from NMWP and Wood Packaging Companies that have not yet been registered with ISPM # 15 or Exporters. The things that are done are modification of treatments / habits that cannot be excluded from the IPPC regulations. Appendix 1, concerning the approval method (MB) fumigation, Heat Treatment (HT) and Alternatives, and to guarantee and control each pest. Material and Method of Change must pass several criteria, including:
- The material used must be environmentally friendly by making a blend / mixture of chemical or organic ingredients.
- If using chemicals, the material used has received recognition from the NPPO in the related country / other.
- The method is easy to implement, so that the NMWP location / Exporter / Wood Packaging Company has not been registered in remote areas accessible to the Treatment / Applicator Implementer, and does not cause high costs.
- The time spent must be efficient, so that it can pursue shipping / product targets to the port or airport
- Not wasteful of energy so that energy can be used for other important purposes.
- easy mobile, easy to move and use.
- It has been presented & accounted for to NPPO as a Competent Authority
- It has been tested by competent Institutions / Agencies in terms of preservation of Wood / Pests of Wood Destroyers / Plant Disturbing Organisms
- Cheap so that Mandatory Wood Packaging does not become a Barier in the Implementation of ISPM # 15 on Export / Import Timber Packaging Trade.
Protection of Wood Packaging with SPIT® Method (Semi Permanent Immunization Treatment®)
- Karuna Sumber Jaya offers a concept of control for each wood packaging from reinfestation or attack of plant disturbing organisms and a guarantee of the product. The methods offered are Protection of Wood Packaging with Immunization and Expiration Systems using the Semi Permanent Immunization Treatment (SPIT®) method. In its research and development, PT. Karuna Sumber Jaya collaborates intensively with the Pest and Biodegradation Insect Control Laboratory, UPT. LIPI Biomaterial Research and Development Center. The treatment / treatment process through several stages that must be carried out properly and correctly, as follows:
- Quality Control (Q.C)
Inspection of Wood Packaging includes all parts of the product to the particular parts, free of bark, physical and aesthetic aspects.
- Make Up (M.U)
M.U Process. This emphasizes on aspects of performance upgrading so that wood packaging products become better, cleaner and tidy, and meet the quality of standard BARANTAN wood packaging.
- PT. Karuna Sumber Jaya using solutions name 8 God Solutions
Spraying is carried out thoroughly 4 times with a minimum interval of 20 minutes so that the solution can be absorbed perfectly in each part of the wood packaging, so as to protect the wood packaging from pest / immunized reinfestation attacks. The L8D ™ active ingredient used is the result of collaborative research with a laboratory to control pest and biodegradation, UPT. Indonesian Institute of Sciences Biomaterial Research and Development Center (LIPI).
The active ingredient L8D ™ is composed of 0.2% Copper Chromate Complex; Natural Extractives compound 0.2% and Cypermethrin 0.4%. The active ingredient has passed the efficacy test for Plant Pest Organisms; Toxicity Test Disinfectant material; Material penetration rate on wood packaging products; and Analysis of residual content of materials to measure the active period of ingredients in products to protect wood packaging products; tackling the pest contained in wood packaging, and preventing environmental pollution after the packaging product has been used. The results of the research are presented on the resume as follows
Table 1. The efficacy test results of L8D ™ material against plant disturbing organisms (OPT).
Table 2. Results of characterization of the physical-chemical properties of L8D materials.
As for the active ingredients of the chemicals used have gained the recognition from international NPPO, among others by AQIS, Australian Hazard Code: 3XE so that their security and their use can be accounted for.
- logo / marking
The logo is based on the number of orders from the Customer. This is done so that Warehouse Operators at Customers can control each Wood Packaging, so that they can identify the newly arrived Pallet wood and Pallet which later came (FI-FO, warehouse management system). Thus, the control of Expiry Date or Expiration until the Stuffing process can be controlled, accounted for and provide assurance of the resilience of pest infestation attacks on any Wood Packaging that will be used.
- Clean Container & Spraying on the Empty Container before Stuffing
Before the commodity is entered into a Container (Stuffing), control is carried out on the transportation equipment. Container floors are swept using Plastic Brooms. Brooms should not be made from coconut fiber, palm fiber, straw or other agricultural materials because it can be used as an insect or pest carrier. Then spray the L8D ™ solution in an empty container. As a form of control and guarantee that transport means are free from pest reinfestation.
- Issuance of Semi Permanent Immunization Treatment (SPIT®) Certificates.
After the stuffing and shipment process is complete, the PD Packing Declaratioan (if the Marking uses ISPM # 15), SPIT® Certificate (if only SPIT® Marking is done). The awarding of this certificate is a form of guarantee of the quality of the Wood packaging, which is used if the Commodity reaches the destination country, and is inspected by the local Quarantine. For PD / SPIT Exporters, Certificates are useful if done by Audit. For Executors the PD-SPIT Treatment / Inspection is useful as a tool to search or investigate if a claim occurs in the future, and is also useful when being examined by the Competent Authority in Indonesia.